Sep 202016
 

Leaders of 21st-century enterprises can learn a few things from Captain James A. Kirk’s brand-new stealth destroyer and her crew. Consider the similarities. Technology can raise everyone’s game and provide more information, faster. Automation can free humans from rote, mechanical work to do human, thinking work. There’s less room — less time — for overhead and waste.

More than ever, performance of the enterprise depends on individual people working together. And that means looking at individual skill-sets differently.

Lesson 4. Diversity, Teamwork, and Cross-functional Abilities are the New Superpowers

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Zumwalt‘s technology means high awareness – but its up to the crew to act on it in time. (AviationIntel)

Whatever your organization is up against — battlefield, marketplace, research goal, or social cause — the environment in which you navigate is more volatile today.  The web and social media means everything is connected to everything else. What you “know” to be true can shift more rapidly and unpredictably now than in the past 300 years.

Traditional teams and organizations are at a disadvantage in this kind of environment. Teams whose every move is subordinate to a supervisor. Teams tiptoeing around the brilliant-but-difficult “superstar.” Teams in the dark about potential problems because their diligent-but-silent “hard worker” never asks for help.

It’s not the teams’ fault — these are the traits we usually hire for. “Takes direction well.” High GPA, high individual achievement. Most solo papers published. “Strong technical skills.” Independent “self-starters.” But today’s fast, chaotic environment needs High-Performing Teams more than high-performing individuals. And the science shows that what we usually look for in individuals needs an update.

The Zumwalt's crew (U.S. Navy)

The Zumwalt’s crew (U.S. Navy)

Teams in the 21st-century enterprise need to be composed of diverse people who mesh well together. People with not just good IQ, but good emotional intelligence — EQ. People who communicate openly and effectively. Who cross-train and appreciate each others’ jobs. Who put the overall mission above their egos. These teams perform well under fire because they cross-monitor, offer mutual support, and allow situational leadership to flow from person to person as needed.

Captain Kirk was asked how his reduced team was going to provide “force protection,” the military term for preventing hostile action against the crew. His answer is “we’re going to do it very well.

Our philosophy is going to be akin to the Marines Corps’ philosophy that every Marine is a rifleman in that every sailor on board must be a force protection expert.

They are also going to have to have a firm grasp of damage control, medical response, evacuation and care. If you get those three things in everybody’s ‘job jar,’ then you have the bench you need in an emergency while still having sailors trained and ready to execute their in-rate skills at different conditions of readiness.

Like Captain James A. Kirk, leaders of 21st-century enterprises will shift away from identifying candidates with the best skills for the job tasks. Instead, they’ll need to start screening for those who can perform the job tasks — and selecting the ones with the diversity, responsibility, communication skills, and sense of mission above self to best fit the mission of the team.

These were the first four lessons that popped to mind when I first read of the Zumwalt and her crew. What others do you see?

All articles in this series:

  1. “Raise the Game” — Automation is Required
  2. “Same Sheet, Different Data” — Tech Is Not Enough
  3. Management Overhead — Reduce the Waste
  4. Team Skills Needed — Diversity, Communication, Mutual Support (this page)
 Posted by at 5:15 pm
Apr 242015
 

2013-03-04 20.13.41Googling, I discovered that the folks over at XCeleratePartners blogged about an Innovation Games for Product Development course I taught in Houston. That was gratifying.

But what was truly gratifying was their write-up about the course (and here’s part 2). Go check it out. You’ll see some excellent details on how the games are played, which one to use for what purpose. And there are nice pictures, too.

Every teacher wants to know that they have made a difference, that their learners “get it.” That’s the true test of training. Not Net Promoter Score. Not standardized tests. The measure of the teacher shows in the real-life performance of their students.

“Educate” comes from the Latin educare, meaning “to lead out that which lies within.” The best learning is centered in the learner — not on the teacher — allowing the student to connect new concepts and techniques to those understandings which they already possess.

ProdBoxThe depth of the XCelerate students’ understanding is demonstrated in their ability to write about the games in a clear and comprehensive way. As an organizational coach, I couldn’t be more glad for the existence of another Innovation Games practitioner.

As an educator, I couldn’t ask for a better compliment.

 Posted by at 5:46 pm
Feb 102012
 

I love this Google+ post from Dave Gray. He talks about the operation of an aircraft carrier, a complex system with high personnel turnover but no comprehensive operations manual. There is no manual because it would have to be as complex as the carrier itself. Instead, the “manual” for the carrier is the sum of ongoing expertise and learning that is occurring all the time:

When the situation is stable, predictable, and well-understood, traditional hierarchy prevails. But when decisions need to be made quickly, decisions will migrate to the edge, where people can sense and respond to situations in real time.

At the end of the post Dave invites us to use this story as a metaphor for other large complex systems. One such large complex system is the so-called “software development process.” A documented process presupposes a simplistic ecosystem, but the ecosystem of enterprise software development — like the ecosystem of an aircraft carrier — is enormously complex. Beyond one person, a small team, or even a team of teams, enterprise software development is of the same order of complexity as the enterprise itself.

And as such, as Dave says, “there ain’t no manual.”

Sure, we need some abstractions (like UML) to help us quickly get our minds around general concepts. And we need some procedural checklists (like automated code-management tools). But mistaking these for “how to do software development” guides reminds me of Martin Fowler’s warning against mistaking software design docs for the software itself: “the code is the best source of comprehensive information, as the code is the easiest thing to keep in sync with the code.” Martin is reminding us that abstractions of complex systems are useful, but they are not the thing itself. Guidelines are useful, but manuals are useless.

So what do you do when your manual for the system will be as complex as the system itself? You don’t try to foster compliance — you foster learning.

And I have seen that scare the pee out of many people. They don’t want to learn. They don’t ever want to be the “new recruit” who has to learn how to best fit their own talents into that of the organization. They went to school, they have a degree, they have 10 years of experience, they want to prove to their organization that they “follow all the right processes and procedures.”

No wonder something like Scrum — three roles, three artifacts, three meetings, and 1 big rule: “adapt your work to best realize the needs of the product” — can be unsettling.

So, why are we learning to be afraid of learning?

 Posted by at 1:41 pm
Oct 162011
 

I recently spent a day helping the leadership of an organization make the leap from “can we become Agile?” to “now we’re becoming Agile!”  The problem was one of mindset: getting people to think less about barriers and more about what actions are possible.  My solution involved hands-on experiential learning and structured group debriefing.

I’ve written about it below, but I’m a visual person so I’ve added a lot of captioned pictures if you want the gist, and the how-to “recipe” for doing this mindset-shift yourself is at the end.

Continue reading »

 Posted by at 6:59 pm
Oct 162010
 

Regina Holliday, a muralist and advocate for health care improvement, talks about her painting “Bridging the Great Divide” between L-mode and R-mode thought as applied to Healthcare 2.0.

The talk and painting depend a bit on the context of the conference where Regina is speaking, however I really liked this bit at at 3m50s about Gorilla Glass:

“Gorilla Glass… was sitting in a vault in Corningware since 1962, waiting for technology to catch up. And that’s what you guys are doing right now, you’re the catch-up. All these amazing things are out there that you need to embrace and teach us how to use correctly…

…Can you walk on glass? Can you take a step forward when you don’t know what’s supporting you? Do you have faith in the technology that you are speaking about, even if you cannot see it, nor prove it, nor say that its currently effective, can you convince others about how it’s going to change absolutely everything?”

I think there’s a message here for the #sgphx folks. I know I certainly am taking it to heart.

Amplify’d from www.thehealthcareblog.com

Click to see the video

Oct 022010
 

Oh, the farmer and the cowman should be friends.
One man likes to push a plough,
The other likes to chase a cow,
But that’s no reason why they cain’t be friends.

image from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XB90b8xXYIkI’ve noticed a disturbing trend at a few different clients now as far as how UX folk and Agile folk get along.  It put me in mind of a song from Rodgers & Hammerstein’s Oklahoma, barely-recalled from my high-school musical days.  Let me explain by way of example:

Steve is a User Experience (UX) expert on an Agile/Scrum team working on the new HipStartup.com website.  He’s excited because he recently returned from an Agile conference and got a lot of great ideas from Jeff Patton’s session about User-Centered Design.  John is the Product Owner (PO) for the site and is juggling multiple voices and requests, but knows that each day without a new site feature delivered is another day that Venture Capital money is burned with no return on investment.  Geri is the ScrumMaster (SM) for the team and she wants everyone to follow the Scrum process because she knows it’s the best way to deliver value incrementally.

Three weeks ago at the meeting with the VC folks, John heard that they would really love to see HipStartup.com do single-sign-on integration with Facebook, Twitter, NetFlix, and the FAA.gov websites — with a unified look and feel.  This morning during the sprint planning meeting, developer Brian cautiously raises the issue of design: does Steve have any wireframes or web composites done for Brian to use in his estimation of story size?  Steve replies that he’s still testing the wireframes with their user focus group and wants to make sure the design for the new single-sign-on will work for them before he releases them to the rest of the team.

John explodes. “What? It’s been three weeks! You’re telling me we still don’t have a thing to demo yet?”  Steve looks helplessly at Geri — surely she will understand the need for a good design?  “John has a point,” Geri says.  “All this user testing you keep talking about smells a lot like Big Up-Front Effort to me.  Can’t you get some wires to Brian ASAP, even if its just for a few stories?”  Steve is appalled.  Wires for just a portion of the site, when the VC folks clearly wanted a unified look and feel?  “Well, sure,” he huffs, “I can give you what I’ve got so far, and you can get right to work on it… if you don’t mind the users thinking it’s crap!

Let us let the curtain of imagination close over this scene for now.

I’d like to say a word fer the farmer
He come out west and made a lot of changes —
That’s right! He come out west and built a lot of fences,
And built ’em right across our cattle ranges!

Just like the farmer and the cowman, User Experience folk and Agilistas/ScrumMasters each provide value in ways that can inherently interfere with each other.  The UX person wants a good experience, and so needs to engage in some sort of holistic design.  This doesn’t have to mean Big Up-Front Effort, but it can look that way to the Agilista who has been fighting waterfall for much of her professional life.

They also each work in ways which tend to stir up the fears of the other.  The Agilista wants a continuous flow of bite-sized chunks of value, with frequent opportunities for inspection and adaptation.  This doesn’t have to mean a Frankenstein’s monster of cobbled-together parts, but to the UX person, even the possibility of creating such a monster is, pardon the phrase, horrifying.

I’d like to teach you all a little sayin’
And learn the words by heart the way you should
I don’t say I’m no better than anybody else,
But I’ll be damned if I ain’t jist as good!

So at the #womeninagile booth at Agile 2010, I had the great fortune to start a conversation with @carologic of Ask a User.  Carol is a UX expert and works through a variety of methods to incorporate actual user research and experience into the design of her client’s products.  While as an Agile coach and empiricism fanatic, I’m always espousing the “ready-fire-aim” and “fail fast” schools of adaptive outcome development.  Cage-match waiting to happen, right?

Wrong.  In 20 minutes of conversation at the booth, we were able to express our respective concerns with each others’ practices and how they are misapplied, and brainstorm at least three harmonious solutions integrating the best of Agile/Scrum and UX, in very specific ways.  Not to tease, but over the next few months, Carol and I will share those ideas with you in our respective blogs.  We will explore:

  • why we shouldn’t call the end-of-iteration demonstration of incremental functionality a “demo”
  • where to integrate user research into the Agile iteration cycle
  • the use of Boundary Objects as discussed in Israel Gat’s Agile 2010 talk

and more.  How did we come to this resolution so quickly?  Simple:  we both approached each others’ domains from a perspective of curiosity and interest — rather than from one of defensiveness.

And when this territory is a state
An’ joins the Union jus’ like all the others
The farmer, and cowman and the merchant
Mus’ all behave theirselves and act like brothers!

image from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jBf1Bkk8Gdk

I believe that diversity does not mean “tolerance of differences.”  Rather, diversity means “our differences make us collectively stronger.”  This isn’t compromise, this is learning from each other’s talents.  As Karl Weick said, “fight as if you are right and listen as if you are wrong.”

Let’s us UX and Agilista people listen to one another.  We’re not truly in competition, we both want the same things.  We just have different ideas of how to go about it.  And it’s in the union of the two that true value will be created.

As Oklahoma‘s Aunt Eller says, “ain’t nobody gonna slug out anything — this here’s a party.


 Posted by at 4:22 pm
Sep 222010
 

Rebecca Porterfield asks “can Agile work in a culture of single point accountability?”  The question stumped a panel discussion.  Too bad I wasn’t there, I’d have been able to give the usual pricey consultant answer:  “It depends.”

(cue laugh track)

image from The Village Voice, http://blogs.villagevoice.com/forkintheroad/archives/2009/12/locavorism_gone.php

In all seriousness, it depends on what you mean by “work.”  I personally have very high standards for “working” Agile.  Agile isn’t a way of doing, it’s a way of being.  So do I believe Agile can work in the spirit of its greatest potential, as a means to enable the shift from an deterministic organization to a learning organization (a la Senge), in a culture of single point accountability?

Can a possum stop a car?

Accountability When Agile is a Process

Sure, Agile can work as a process for incrementally creating quality software product when we insist on maintaining single-point accountability, exactly as Rebecca successfully implemented in her project.  You can “wrap” the Delivery Team in Agile and use the Product Owner and ScrumMaster as the “interfaces” for the team.  You can even promote individual accountability in such a scenario:

  • Product Owner (PO) — on the hook for the health of the (software) product
  • Team Coach/ScrumMaster (SM) — on the hook for the health of the Team and their adoption/adaptation of the process
  • Delivery Team — on the hook for demonstrating a working product increment at the end of each iteration

“Hey Derek, not too fast! That last one is team accountability!  So there isn’t individual accountability at the team level!”

Uh, no.  There certainly is.  In the context of the entire Agile Team (e.g. a Scrum Team consisting of a SM, PO, and Folks Who Make the Software Product Exist) the Delivery Team is accountable only so far as they collectively build working product.  Individually, however:

  • Delivery Team Member — on the hook to the rest of their Team for whatever commitments they make each day at standup; for asking for help when needed; and for swarming and providing help as needed.

See ?  If we are talking about a culture of accountability, then accountability depends in what context you view it.  Each person both has individual accountability and also is part of a Team that has team accountability.  In the context of the Delivery Team, Brian the Developer is accountable for the tasks he signs up for and tells his team “by tomorrow I will complete…”  In the context of accountability to the rest of the organization, however, there is no individual accountability at the Team level lest we promote siloed work and blame-shifting and all the other joys of WaterGile.  But in the same context of the rest of the organization, Geri the PO is the single-point of accountability for the “health of the (software) product (that the team delivers every increment).”

But can Geri truly be single-point accountable for the R-O-I of the product?  Because she is also part of the larger team of Product Management, which is team-accountable for making that R-O-I manifest and be something the organization can use.  In the context of the total utility of the software product, one must also consider the teams of marketing, sales, support, training, etc. to extract and deliver full value on the potential of the software product.

So it’s both.  In a single-point accountability culture, the successful Agilist who wishes to use Agile as a process for creating potentially useful software products needs to promote team accountability and individual accountability as appropriate for the context.  Asking which is more important is like asking whether “3” or “blind mice” is more important.

Lowest Common Denominator

Image from http://seoblackhat.com/2008/05/19/to-make-a-fortune-cookie/ and http://www.isaacsunyer.com/dont-be-evil/

Now, this will work for churning out product at a reasonable rate, and Fred Winslow Taylor and members of his Fan Club can clap and sing that Agile will work in a culture of single-point responsibility.  Assuming that your organization has little commitment to the change necessary to achieve the hyper-productivity promises of Agile, assuming you don’t mind flat or near-flat velocity gains, flat team morale, and assuming you are okay with the criminal waste of human potential of churning out product with no real Awesomeness in it — please, be my guest.  Don’t look back, some other companies might be gaining on you.

But if this doesn’t seem to align with your organization’s values, if you actually want people to work better together, to develop their full potential as a team, to realize the power of their diversity and make some truly creative and useful things… you may wish to be cautious with single-point accountability and Agile.

Because you’re robbing people of responsibility.

Responsibility — being a source or cause for results — depends on having the opportunity to be the source for those results.  When you make one person (e.g. the PO, or the SM) on the hook for delivery of the product, people who don’t have the ability to deliver that product, you steal that opportunity away from the Delivery Team.  And that’s the greatest paradox of how I so often see Agile being implemented.

Trying to realize these kinds of gains while preserving single-point accountability for delivery will be about as successful as the possum trying to stop the car.

 Posted by at 8:11 pm